Turn-Verein Vorwärts, March 9, 1913. A silver gelatin group photograph of the members of the Turn-Verein Vorwaerts, with its headquarters at the Labor Temple at 243 -247 East 84th Street in Manhattan. 17.5 cm x 23.7 cm, image; 25.5 cm x 30.5 cm, mount. Titled in ink in the lower right-hand corner of the mount. Photographer unknown. Photograph was taken on the street outside the Labor Temple. Except for a small chip out of the lower right-hand corner of the mount the condition is fine. It is a fine image, with only traces of solarization, free from damage to the surface of the image.
With the flood of German immigrants following the failed 1848 revolution came new political ideas. Among these immigrants were members of the Turners, an athletic (gymnastic) and political organization early in the nineteenth century. By 1893 the Turners had almost 42,000 members in 316 American societies. This photograph was taken just before the First World War, after which anti-German sentiment greatly reduced the numbers of memberships. See: The Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac 1910, p. 249; Vol. XXV, No. 1, of the Eagle Library; also, American Turners Local Societies Collection, 1866 – 2006, Mss 038, Ruth Lily Special Collections and Archives Indianapolis, Indiana, Indiana University-Purdue University.